Voltaire, the leading literary figure of the age, wrote histories, plays, pamphlets, essays, and novels, as well as correspondence with monarchs such as Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia.
Both aspects of the religious side of the Enlightenment—rationalist and Pietist—were concerned with human worth. This came to be called new idealism, as opposed to classical idealism.
Taking a page from Plato, Kant argued that certain inner concepts such as depth, beauty, cause, and especially God existed independently of the senses. Abingdon Press, ; Gay, Peter.
The Enlightenment was especially strong in France, Scotland, and America. Ultimately, political freedom depended on the right social environment, which could be encouraged or hindered by government.
Yet the Enlightenment left a lasting heritage for the 19th and 20th centuries. To keep the potential for governmental abuse of power in check, Enlightenment figures argued for a separation of powers.
Of the basic assumptions and beliefs common to philosophers and intellectuals of this period, perhaps the most important was an abiding faith in the power of human reason. Direct election of senators did not occur until —13, and it was not until,with Baker v.
The phrase was frequently employed by writers of the period itself, convinced that they were emerging from centuries of darkness and ignorance into a new 18th century european enlightenment essay enlightened by reason, science, and a respect for humanity.
As a spillover of the Enlightenment, nonsecular beliefs expressed first by Quakers and then by Protestant evangelicals in Britain and the United States emerged. Human virtue and happiness were best achieved by freedom from unnecessary restraints imposed by church and state.
Constitution and as popularised by Dugald Stewartwould be the basis of classical liberalism. It marked a key stage in the decline of the church and the growth of modern secularism. During the first half of the 18th century, the leaders of the Enlightenment waged an uphill struggle against considerable odds.
In many respects, however, the later decades of the century marked a triumph of the movement in Europe and America. Deists questioned the use of power by established churches.
The precursors of the Enlightenment can be traced to the 17th century and earlier. Scientific progress during the Enlightenment included the discovery of carbon dioxide fixed air by the chemist Joseph Blackthe argument for deep time by the geologist James Hutton and the invention of the steam engine by James Watt.
According to Thomas Painedeism is the simple belief in God the Creatorwith no reference to the Bible or any other miraculous source.
Under the influence of Rousseau, sentiment and emotion became as respectable as reason. As they did so, they also elaborated novel doctrines of popular sovereignty that the 19th century would These men of letters constituted a sort of "substitute aristocracy that was both all-powerful and without real power".
Economic thinkers argued for liberation from state control of the economy. Locke is known for his statement that individuals have a right to "Life, Liberty and Property" and his belief that the natural right to property is derived from labor.
Lastly, Amadeus was an excellent portrayal of the 18th century in Europe. The American Revolution probably encouraged attacks and criticisms against existing European regimes. In the s writers broadened their field of criticism to include political and economic issues.
Hobbes viewed the social contract as a way for government to restrain base human nature. Joseph was over-enthusiastic, announcing many reforms that had little support so that revolts broke out and his regime became a comedy of errors and nearly all his programs were reversed.
The antislavery movement gained momentum in the later 18th century. This theory had echoes in the arguments of leaders of the American Revolution who argued that their revolt against various tariffs and taxes such as the tea tax was taxation without representation.
He determined the essence of Christianity to be a belief in Christ the redeemer and recommended avoiding more detailed debate. A desire arose to reexamine and question all received ideas and values, to explore new ideas in many different directions-hence the inconsistencies and contradictions that often appear in the writings of 18th-century thinkers.
Theories of government[ edit ] John Locke, one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers,  based his governance philosophy in social contract theorya subject that permeated Enlightenment political thought.
They also tended to support freedom of conscience and checks in absolute government. This example The Enlightenment Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only.Oct 11, · HIST – Later Modern Europe, Assessment Task One Research Essay The rise and subsequent take-over of power in Germany by Hitler and the Nazi Party in the early s was the culmination and continuation not of Enlightenment thought from the 18th and 19th century but the logical conclusion of.
The Enlightenment is a name given by historians to an intellectual movement that was predominant in the Western world during the 18th century. Age of Enlightenment 2 February The Age of Enlightenment is a term used to describe the trends in thought and letters in Europe and the American colonies during the 18th century prior to the French Revolution.
The Enlightenment Essay The Enlightenment in Europe came on the heels of the age of science. It dates from the end of the 17th century to the end of the 18th century. Amadeus the film focuses on Mozart’s life while representing the 18th century European Enlightenment through social class, politics and social history.
Firstly, through the life of Mozart, we saw how difficult it was to survive in society. The Enlightenment was enabled by the Scientific Revolution, which had begun as early as This intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the s.
I will discuss the Enlightenment and describe the impact it had on societies of the 18th century.Download